City (pop., 2007 est.: 304,065), capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina. After the Turks invaded in the late 15th century, it developed as a trading centre and stronghold of Muslim culture. From 1878 it was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (seeAustria-Hungary). In 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist, which precipitated World War I. After Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia in 1992, it became a focal point of fierce civil war as Serb militias drove thousands of Bosnian Muslims from the countryside to take refuge in the city (seeBosnian conflict). Its pre-civil-war industries included brewing, furniture and automobile manufacturing, and tobacco processing. It was the host of the 1984 Winter Olympic Games and is the centre of a road network. A rail connection to the Adriatic Sea was damaged during fighting in the 1990s but is now operational. Sarajevo retains a Muslim character, with many mosques and an ancient marketplace.