City (pop., 2002 prelim.: 4,630,000), capital of Chile. It is located in central Chile, on the Mapocho River at an elevation of about 1,700 ft (520 m). Founded in 1541 by the Spanish, the city has suffered repeatedly from earthquakes, floods, and civil disorder. It was only slightly damaged during the War of Independence (1810–18) and became the capital of an independent Chile at the war's end. It is the country's economic and cultural centre and principal industrial city, producing textiles, footwear, and foodstuffs. The city boasts a cosmopolitan cultural life and is the home of the University of Chile.