Port city (pop., 2001: 188,477), capital of the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands, Spain. Founded in 1494, it occupies a small plain between two usually waterless ravines. It was attacked by the British in 1657 and 1797; the latter assault was led by Horatio Nelson. After 1877 growth was spurred by the banana and tomato trade and, later, by harbour improvements and tourism. In 1936 Francisco Franco, then captain general of the Canary Islands, organized from Santa Cruz the national uprising that led to the Spanish Civil War. Industries include oil refining.