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geographical name\sə-ˈlər-(ˌ)nō, sä-ˈler-\
Definition of SALERNO
commune & port S Italy on Gulf of Salerno (inlet of Tyrrhenian Sea) ESE of Naples pop 141,724
— Sa·ler·ni·tan\-ˈlər-nə-tən, -ˈler-\adjective or noun
geographical name(Concise Encyclopedia)
City (pop., 2001 prelim.: 144,078), southern Italy. Located on the Gulf of Salerno, it was founded by the Romans in 197 BC on the site of an earlier town. Part of a Lombard duchy from AD 646, it was the capital of an independent Lombard principality from 839 to c. 1076. It was then conquered by the Norman Robert Guiscard and became his capital. It was later incorporated into the Kingdom of Naples. During World War II, Salerno's coast was the scene of a major battle (September 1943) between Allied landing forces and German troops. It is an active seaport in an industrial area; its landmarks include a medical school (the earliest in Europe, probably founded in the 9th century) and the cathedral (845, rebuilt 1076–85) that contains the tombs of St. Matthew and Pope Gregory VII.