City (pop., 2000: 334,563), southwestern Pennsylvania, U.S. It is situated at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers where they form the Ohio River. In 1758 the French Fort Duquesne was captured there by the British, and the site was renamed Pitt. It was incorporated as a borough in 1794 and as a city in 1816. In the 19th century it developed rapidly as a steel-manufacturing centre. The American Federation of Labor began there in 1881 (seeAFL-CIO). The second-largest city in the state, it is the centre of an urban industrial complex that includes several neighbouring cities. There are more than 150 industrial research laboratories in the area. It is home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, and other educational institutions.