City (pop., 2001 prelim.: 85,379), central Italy. Located on the Arno River, Pisa probably began as an Etruscan town. It became a Roman colony c. 180 BC. A Christian bishopric by AD 313, it flourished during the Middle Ages as the principal urban centre of Tuscany. Pisa's participation in the Crusades made it a rival of Genoa and Venice. It became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1860. The city was the scene of heavy fighting during World War II. It is now an important railway junction. Its cathedral, the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and other attractions, make it a tourist destination. It is the site of the University of Pisa (founded 1343) and the birthplace of Galileo.