Ruined hill town, northern central Macedonia, Greece. In c. 357 BC it was fortified by King Philip II to control nearby gold mines. In 42 BC it was the scene of the decisive Roman battle in which Mark Antony and Octavian (later Augustus) defeated Brutus and Cassius, the leading assassins of Julius Caesar. Many Christian ruins, especially of the 5th–6th century AD, are spread over the site. St. Paul preached the gospel to Christian converts there.