City (pop., 2006 est.: 115,326), southern France. Located just north of the Spanish border, Perpignan was founded c. 10th century. It was the capital of Roussillon in the 12th century and of the kingdom of Majorca from 1276 to 1344. The city was heavily fortified during the struggle between France and Spain for the area; it became French in 1659. It is now a market centre for the surrounding agricultural area; its many medieval buildings have made tourism economically important.