City (pop., 2001: 201,154), capital of Asturias, northwestern Spain. Oviedo lies on a hill surrounded by mountains and a fertile plain. Founded as a monastery in AD 757, it became the capital of the kingdom of Asturias in 810. It was one of the few Spanish towns never conquered by the Moors and contains many medieval landmarks, including a 14th-century cathedral. The cathedral was badly damaged during the Spanish Civil War. Oviedo is the centre of a mining region that produces coal and iron.