City (pop., 2006 est.: 2,635,420) and seaport, west-central Honshu, Japan, on the northeastern shore of Osaka Bay. A long-established city and port, Naniwa was made a castle town by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in the 16th century. It was the leading commercial city of Japan during the Edo (Tokugawa) period and the leading industrial city from the late 19th century. It was badly damaged by U.S. bombing during World War II. Once noted for its large textile industry, it is now a leading financial centre with heavy industries, including machinery, iron and steel, and chemicals. With Kobe and Kyoto, it is part of Japan's second largest urban and industrial agglomeration. It is also a cultural and educational centre, with several universities and theatres.