City (pop., 2001: 1,029,000), southwestern Ukraine. A Tatar fortress was established in Odessa in the 14th century. The city was ceded to Russia in 1791 and became its second most important port after Saint Petersburg, with grain as its principal export. It was a centre of revolutionary activity in 1905 (seeRussian Revolution of 1905), and it suffered heavy damage in World War II. Odessa is a major seaport and industrial centre, with shipbuilding, engineering, and oil refineries. It is also a cultural centre, with a university, museums, and theatres.
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