City (pop., 2005 est.: urban agglom., 1,452,000), east-central Pakistan, near the Chenab River. An ancient city, it was taken by Alexander the Great in 326 BC. It fell to the Muslims c. AD 712. For three centuries it remained the outpost of Islam in what was then India. It was subject to the Delhi sultanate and the Mughal Empire and was captured by the Afghans (1779) and the Sikhs (1818) before being subjugated by the British (1849–1947). Multan is a commercial and industrial centre, with textile mills, glass factories, and cottage industries, including pottery and camelskin work. It is the site of many Muslim shrines and an ancient Hindu temple.