City (pop., 2003 est.: 1,800,000), northwestern Iraq. Located across the Tigris River from the ruins of ancient Nineveh, which it succeeded, Mosul prospered until 1258, when it was ravaged by the Mongols. It was a centre of the Ottoman Empire (c. 1534–1918). After World War I (1914–18) it was occupied by the British and in 1926 was ceded to Iraq. The country's second largest city and a chief commercial centre in the northwest, it has manufacturing (cement, textiles) and an oil refinery and nearby oil fields. It has many ancient buildings, some dating from the 13th century, including the Great Mosque and the Red Mosque.