City (pop., 2001 prelim.: 175,442), Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy. It lies between the Secchia and Panaro rivers, northwest of Bologna. An ancient Etruscan city, it was made a Roman colony in 183 BC. It was attacked and pillaged by the Huns under Attila and later by the Lombards. It passed to the house of Este in 1288. It was taken by France in 1796 and made part of Napoleon's kingdom of Italy in 1805. It reverted to Este rule in 1815 before joining unified Italy in 1860. The automobile industry is important to its economy; it is also an agricultural market centre. Sites of interest include the 11th-century cathedral and the university (founded 1175).