City (pop., 2004: 823,154), west-central Morocco. One of the four imperial cities, it lies in the centre of the Haouz plain. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Yusuf ibn Tashufin as the capital of the Almoravid dynasty. It fell to the Almohad dynasty in 1147, passed to the Marinid dynasty in 1269, and was the capital under the Sa'did dynasty in the 16th century. In the premodern era, it was one of Islam's great cities. In 1912 it was captured by the French, who dominated the city until 1956. Now a popular tourist destination, it has many historical buildings and a well-known souk within its ancient city centre (designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985).