City (pop., 2002: city, 308,385; metro. area, 1,568,679), southwestern Germany. One of Europe's largest inland ports, it is situated on the Rhine River at the mouth of the Neckar River. It was a village in the 8th century, fortified by Elector Frederick IV, and chartered in 1607. The town was twice destroyed in wars during the 17th century and was rebuilt when the Palatine electors (seePalatinate) moved their residence there in 1720. Destroyed again in 1795, the city was rebuilt and became a centre of the revolutionary movement in 1848. Mannheim is an industrial centre, manufacturing chemicals, textiles, and fertilizers.