Island (pop., 2000: 37,909,589), Philippines. The country's largest island, with an area of 40,420 sq mi (104,688 sq km), it is the site of Quezon City and Manila, the nation's capital. Located in the northern Philippine archipelago, it is bounded by the Philippine Sea, the Sibuyan Sea, and the South China Sea, and it is separated from Taiwan by the Luzon Strait. It represents one-third of the country's land area and half of its population. It is largely mountainous; in 1991 the eruption of Mount Pinatubo altered the island's geography. It is the country's leader in both industry and agriculture.