City (pop., 2006 est.: city, 226,014; metro. area, 1,016,205), northern France, situated on the Deûle River. Fortified in the 11th century, it changed hands several times during the Middle Ages. Louis XIV besieged and captured the city in 1667. It was taken by the duke of Marlborough in 1708 and ceded to France in 1713. It was occupied by the Germans during both World War I and World War II. It is traditionally France's textile centre; other industries include machinery manufacturing and chemical plants. Its museum has a rich art collection.