Region, eastern Kashmir region, northwestern Indian subcontinent. It covers about 45,000 sq mi (117,000 sq km) and includes the western Himalayan Ladakh Range (seeHimalayas), the Karakoram Range, and the upper Indus River valley. Its capital is Leh. India and Pakistan fought over it before peace negotiations in 1949 gave its southern portion to India (which is part of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir) and the rest to Pakistan. In the Sino-Indian War of 1962 China gained a portion of northeastern Ladakh. The region's boundaries are still in dispute.