Province (pop., 2002 est.: 26,990,000), northeastern China. It is bordered by Russia and North Korea, Heilongjiang and Liaoning provinces, and Inner Mongolia. With an area of 72,200 sq mi (187,000 sq km), it is China's most urbanized province; its capital is Changchun, and its second largest city is Jilin. Its major river is the Sungari (Songhua) River, a tributary of the Amur. It was made a province in 1907. Occupied by the Japanese army in 1931, it became part of the puppet state of Manchukuo (1932–45). Chinese communist forces seized the province from the Nationalists in 1948. Industrialization since the late 20th century has been rapid.