disputed territory N India (subcontinent); claimed as a constituent state (summer ∗ Srinagar, winter ∗ Jammu area 53,665 square miles—138,992 square kilometers—pop 10,069,917) and partly administered by India, but also claimed and partly controlled by Pakistan
State (pop., 2008 est.: 12,366,000), northern India. With an area of 39,146 sq mi (101,387 sq km), it occupies the southern portion of the Kashmir region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent and is bordered by Pakistan and China, by the portions of Kashmir administered by those two countries, and by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. The land is predominantly mountainous and includes segments of the Karakoram and Himalaya ranges. Part of Kashmir's Ladakh region is included in the state. There are two major lowland areas: the plains of the Jammu region and the fertile and heavily populated Vale of Kashmir. The majority of the state's people are Muslims, although Hindus predominate in the southeastern Jammu area, and eastern Ladakh is largely Buddhist. Formerly a princely state, Jammu and Kashmir became an Indian state in 1947, even as India and Pakistan were fighting for control of the entire Kashmir region.