City (pop., 2007: 2,606,294), western Turkey. On the Aegean seacoast, it is one of Turkey's largest ports and its third largest city. It was founded as early as 3000 BC and was settled by the Greeks before 1000 BC. It was captured by the Lydians about 600 BC and ceased to exist until it was refounded by Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. It became one of the principal cities of Anatolia. After being conquered in turn by the Crusaders and by Timur (Tamerlane), it was annexed to the Ottoman Empire about 1425. It became part of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. It has grown rapidly since 1945 and has a large industrial economy and a growing tourist trade.