City (pop., 2000: 371,657), capital, and principal port of Hawaii, U.S. Located on Oahu island, it is the crossroads of trans-Pacific shipping and air routes, the focus of interisland services, and the commercial and industrial centre of the state. Its area of 597 sq mi (1,545 sq km) includes some outlying islets, which constitute the Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge. Honolulu has about 80% of the state's population. The area was settled from c. 1100, according to Hawaiian legends. During the 19th century Honolulu flourished as a trade centre, especially for whalers. In 1898 it passed with the rest of Hawaii to U.S. control. In December 1941 the city and adjacent Pearl Harbor were bombed by the Japanese. It became a prime staging area for the rest of World War II and later for the Korean and Vietnam wars. The military remains an important source of income. The port serves numerous manufacturing plants. Nearby Waikiki Beach is a prime tourist site.