: a theory that the universe and especially living nature is correctly seen in terms of interacting wholes (as of living organisms) that are more than the mere sum of elementary particles
: a holistic study or method of treatment
In the philosophy of the social sciences, the view that denies that all large-scale social events and conditions are ultimately explicable in terms of the individuals who participated in, enjoyed, or suffered them. Methodological holism maintains that at least some social phenomena must be studied at their own autonomous, macroscopic level of analysis, that at least some social wholes are not reducible to or completely explicable in terms of individuals' behaviour (seeemergence). Semantic holism denies the claim that all meaningful statements about large-scale social phenomena (e.g., The industrial revolution resulted in urbanization) can be translated without residue into statements about the actions, attitudes, relations, and circumstances of individuals.