Province (pop., 2002 est.: 96,130,000), north-central China. It is bounded by Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong, Anhui, Hubei, and Shaanxi. It has an area of 64,500 sq mi (167,000 sq km), and its capital is Zhengzhou. An early civilization there gave rise to the Shang dynasty (18th–12th centuries BC). Kaifeng was the capital of several dynasties in the 10th century AD before becoming the capital of the Bei (Northern) Song dynasty (960–1127); Zhengzhou then became the provincial capital. Henan's principal crop is wheat. Henan has large deposits of coal, petroleum, and natural gas, which fuel the economies of its major cities. It is also a railroad transportation hub.