City (pop., 2003 est.: 2,735,095), capital and largest city of Heilongjiang province, northeastern China. Located on the Sungari (Songhua) River in the centre of Northeast China (Manchuria), it grew with the arrival of the Chinese Eastern Railway, built by the Russians in the late 19th century. A Russian military base during the Russo-Japanese War, it was a haven for Russian refugees after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and had the largest Russian population of any city outside the Soviet Union. Chinese communist forces took the city in 1946 and from it were able to bring all of northeastern China under their control. It then became the region's chief industrial base and a shipping centre for agricultural products.