Any of several mixtures used as propelling charges in guns and as blasting agents in mining. The first such explosive was black powder, a mixture of saltpeter (potassium nitrate), sulfur, and charcoal. It originated in the 9th century in China and made its way west in the 13th century. The recipe was refined and finally fixed in the 14th century; black powder is still widely used for ignition charges, primers, fuses, blank charges in military ammunition, and fireworks. In 1838 it was discovered that cotton could be made explosive by dipping it in concentrated nitric acid, and the form of nitrocellulose known as guncotton came into use as an ingredient of gunpowder in the 1860s. In the 1880s Paul Vieille (1854–1934) used nitrocellulose to create the first smokeless gunpowder; modern gunpowder consists of either nitrocellulose alone or a combination of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin.