City (pop., 2000: city, 1,646,183; metro. area, 3,677,531), capital of Jalisco state, west-central Mexico. Mexico's second largest city, it lies near the Río Grande de Santiago at an elevation of about 5,100 ft (1,550 m). Founded by the Spanish in 1531, it was relocated several times under pressure from Indians. In 1810 it was occupied briefly by the independence leader Miguel Hidalgo. Since 1940 it has become a major industrial producer while retaining a rich agricultural trade. The governor's palace, begun in 1743, is a noted example of Spanish Mexican architecture. Guadalajara is the site of two universities.