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: an instrument used for finding and measuring radioactivity
Full Definition of GEIGER COUNTER
: an instrument for detecting the presence and intensity of radiations (as cosmic rays or particles from a radioactive substance) by means of their ionizing effect on an enclosed gas which results in a pulse that is amplified and fed to a device giving a visible or audible indication
: an instrument for detecting the presence and intensity of radiations (as cosmic rays or particles from a radioactive substance) by means of the ionizing effect on an enclosed gas which results in a pulse that is amplified and fed to a device giving a visible or audible indication
Biographical Note for GEIGER COUNTER
Geiger,Hans (Johannes) Wilhelm(1882–1945), and Müller\ˈmue-lər\ , Walther(flourished 1928), German physicists. Geiger did significant research on atomic theory, radioactivity, and cosmic rays. He developed a number of techniques and instruments for the detection and counting of individual charged particles. With the British physicist Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937), he developed in 1908 the first radiation counter, an instrument that counted alpha particles. With the help of Müller he introduced an improved version of the Geiger counter in 1928. The Geiger-Müller counter marked the introduction of modern electrical devices into radiation research.
Device used for detecting and counting individual particles of radiation. Invented by the German physicist Hans Geiger (1882–1945) and later refined with help from Walther Müller, the device is a gas-filled metal tube with a wire through its axis and a high voltage applied to the wire. As particles enter the tube, they create a large avalanche of ionization in the gas, which then discharges, creating a brief electric pulse. The tube produces the same large output pulse for virtually every charged particle that passes through the gas and so is useful for detecting individual particles. It can therefore indicate lower levels of radiation than is possible with other types of detectors.