(flourished 4th century BC, Babylon and Jerusalem) Jewish religious leader and reformer. He restored the Jewish community after its exile in Babylon, persuading the people of Judah to return to a strict observance of Mosaic law. He served as a commissioner of the Persian government, which was tolerant of other religions but required order and authority. His efforts led to a restoration of traditional worship in the rebuilt Temple of Jerusalem and the dissolution of all mixed marriages. For creating a Jewish community based on the Law, which could exist without political statehood, he is often considered the founder of modern Judaism. His story is told in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah.