City and royal borough (pop., 2001: 145,663), eastern Scotland. It constitutes the council area of Dundee City in the historic county of Angus. An important seaport, it is situated on the Firth of Tay, an inlet of the North Sea. Earliest mention of the town dates from the late 12th century, and over the next four or five centuries it was repeatedly sacked, with much bloodshed, by the English. Among surviving buildings, the City Churches, a collection of three parish churches housed under one roof, are a focal point in the modern city centre. Dundee was a world centre for jute manufacturing in the 19th century. Textiles are still produced, but since World War II light engineering has become the predominant industry. The University of Dundee was founded in 1881.