City (pop., 2001: 1,016,000), southeastern Ukraine. In 1872 an ironworks was founded there by a Welshman, John Hughes, to produce iron rails for the growing Russian rail network. Fueled by the rich deposits of the Donets Basin, both coal mining and steelmaking developed rapidly. Extensive destruction in World War II led to postwar modernization, and subsequent growth has been rapid. Modern Donetsk is one of Ukraine's largest metallurgical centres.