Administrative county (pop., 2001: 487,607), northwestern England. Extending along the Irish Sea coast from Morecambe Bay to Solway Firth, it includes the famous Lake District. It was established in 1974, with its seat at Carlisle. Human occupation dates from the Neolithic Period. The Romans constructed several roads, a series of forts, and the great complex of Hadrian's Wall. After the mid-10th century, northern Cumbria alternated between Scottish and English rule until it was taken by the English in 1157. Lead, silver, and iron ore have been mined in the district since the 12th century.