Education of males and females in the same school. A modern phenomenon, it was adopted earlier and more widely in the U.S. than in Europe, where tradition proved a greater obstacle to its acceptance. In the 17th century Quaker and other reformers in Scotland, northern England, and New England began urging that girls as well as boys be taught to read the Bible. By the later 18th century girls were being admitted to town schools. By 1900 most U.S. public high schools and some 70% of colleges and universities were coeducational. Pioneering institutions in the U.S. included Oberlin College, Cornell University, and the University of Iowa. In Europe the Universities of Bologna and London and various Scandinavian institutions were the first to open their doors. Other European countries adopted coeducational policies after 1900, and many communist countries instituted strong coeducational programs.