Any of more than 3,500 insect species (in suborder Blattaria, order Dictyoptera) that are among the most primitive living, winged insects and among the oldest (more than 320 million years old) fossil insects. Cockroaches have a flattened, oval body; long, threadlike antennae; and a shining, leathery, black or brown covering. They prefer a warm, humid, dark environment and are usually found in tropical or other mild climates, but have become widespread in heated buildings, especially city apartment buildings, in the temperate zone, and infestations can be severe. Only a few species have become pests. Cockroaches eat both animal and plant material. The American cockroach is up to about 2 in. (30–50 mm) long. The German cockroach (less than 0.5 in., or about 12 mm, long) is a common household pest which has been spread throughout the world by ship.