chromatography


chro·ma·tog·ra·phy

noun \ˌkrō-mə-ˈtä-grə-fē\

Definition of CHROMATOGRAPHY

:  a process in which a chemical mixture carried by a liquid or gas is separated into components as a result of differential distribution of the solutes as they flow around or over a stationary liquid or solid phase
chro·mato·graph·ic \krō-ˌma-tə-ˈgra-fik, krə-\ adjective
chro·mato·graph·i·cal·ly \-fi-k(ə-)lē\ adverb

First Known Use of CHROMATOGRAPHY

1936

Other Biochemistry Terms

bile, biodegradable, capsaicin, keratin, metabolism

chro·ma·tog·ra·phy

noun \ˌkrō-mə-ˈtäg-rə-fē\   (Medical Dictionary)
plural chro·ma·tog·ra·phies

Medical Definition of CHROMATOGRAPHY

: a process in which a chemical mixture carried by a liquid or gas is separated into components as a result of differential distribution of the solutes as they flow around or over a stationary liquid or solid phase—see affinity chromatography, cochromatography, column chromatography, electrochromatography, gas chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, gel filtration, high-performance liquid chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, liquid chromatography, paper chromatography, partition chromatography, radiochromatography, thin-layer chromatography
chro·mato·graph·ic \krō-ˌmat-ə-ˈgraf-ik, krə-\ adjective
chro·mato·graph·i·cal·ly \-i-k(ə-)lē\ adverb

chromatography

noun    (Concise Encyclopedia)

Method first described in 1901 by Mikhail S. Tsvet for separating mixed chemical substances. Tsvet's neglected work, rediscovered in the 1930s, uses the different affinities of substances in a solution in a mobile phase (a moving stream of gas or liquid) for adsorption onto a stationary phase (a fine-grained solid, a sheet of filtering material, or a thin film of a liquid on a solid surface). Choices of materials for these phases allow enormous versatility for separating substances including biological fluids (e.g., amino acids, steroids, carbohydrates, pigments), chemical mixtures, and forensic samples. In the original technique, an organic solvent flowed through a column of powdered alumina (see aluminum), sodium carbonate, or even powdered sugar to separate mixed plant pigments. Among current adaptations are paper chromatography (PC), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), liquid chromatography (LC, including high-performance liquid chromatography, or HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC). Some remain laboratory techniques, but others (especially HPLC) can be used on an industrial scale. They require different methods for detecting and identifying the separated components, including colorimetry, spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry, and measurement of fluorescence, ionization potential, or thermal conductivity. A.J.P. Martin shared a 1952 Nobel Prize for developing LC and PC, and in his Nobel lecture announced the development (with his cowinner R.L.M. Synge and other colleagues) of GC.

Browse

Next Word in the Dictionary: chromatolysis
Previous Word in the Dictionary: chromatograph
All Words Near: chromatography

Seen & Heard

What made you want to look up chromatography? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible).

Get Our Free Apps
Voice Search, Favorites,
Word of the Day, and More
Join Us on FB & Twitter
Get the Word of the Day and More