City (pop., 2001 prelim.: 93,540), capital of Calabria, southern Italy. Catanzaro lies near the Gulf of Squillace. It was probably founded in the 10th century by Byzantines. It was taken in 1059 by the Normans under Robert Guiscard. It played an important part in the Napoleonic Wars and in the movement for Italian unity. Catanzaro suffered severely from earthquakes in 1905 and 1907 and from bombing in World War II. It is an agricultural centre.