Ancient city-state, western bank of the Euphrates River. Its remains lay southeast of Gaziantep, Tur., near the Syrian border. It was a city of the Mitanni kingdom in the 2nd millennium BC and later a chief Hittite city. Probably subjugated by Sea Peoples after c. 1200 BC, it gradually came under Assyrian rule, finally capitulating in 717 BC. In a battle at Carchemish in 605 BC, Babylonian king Nebuchadrezzar II expelled the Egyptians from Syria. The ruins were excavated in 1911–20.