City (pop., 2001: city, 133,363; metro. area, 400,157), southwestern Spain. Located on a peninsula in the Bay of Cádiz northwest of Gibraltar, it is the main seaport of Cádiz province in Andalusia. Founded as Gadir by Phoenicians from Tyrec. 1100 BC, it was later ruled by Carthage, Rome (as Gades), and the Visigoths. It was held by the Moors beginning in AD 711. In 1262 Cádiz was captured by Alfonso X of Castile-León. The city enjoyed great prosperity as a centre for Spanish trade with the American colonies in the 16th–18th centuries (seeSevilla). It now has naval and mercantile shipbuilding yards.