Joining together of leaves of paper, parchment, or vellum within covers to form a book or codex. Bookbinding developed when the codex replaced the roll. Early bindings were often splendidly decorated, but the typical artistic bookbinding is of decorated leather and was first produced in the monasteries of Egypt's Coptic Church. Rare books, historical documents, and manuscripts may be bound by hand. The cover (case) of the typical book is now affixed to the leaves by machine.