City (pop., 2000 est.: municipality, 229,496), southwestern Norway. It is Norway's second largest city and most important port. Founded in 1070 by King Olaf III, it was Norway's capital in the 12th–13th centuries. In the 14th century, German Hanseatic League merchants acquired control over its trade; their influence in a weakened Norway lasted into the 16th century. Repeatedly destroyed by fire (most notably in 1702 and 1916), Bergen has been resurrected each time. Its economy is based largely on fishing and shipbuilding. It was the birthplace of Edvard Grieg and the violinist Ole Bull.