City (pop., 2000: 113,866), southeastern Texas, U.S. Lying at the head of navigation on the Neches River, it is connected to the Gulf of Mexico by the Sabine-Neches Canal and is a major port of entry. It was founded in 1835. When Spindletop, the first major oil field in Texas, was discovered in 1901, the city grew rapidly. With Port Arthur and Orange, it forms the Golden Triangle petrochemical and industrial complex.