Autonomous community (pop., 2001: 7,357,558) and historic region, southern Spain. It occupies an area of 33,821 sq mi (87,597 sq km); the capital is Sevilla. It is traversed by mountain ranges, including the Sierra Morena and Sierra Nevada; its main river is the Guadalquivir. Andalusia has a long history of inhabitation: by the Phoenicians (9th century BC), the Carthaginians (5th century BC), and the Romans (3rd century BC). The Arabic name Al-Andalus was originally applied by the Moors to the whole Iberian Peninsula. When the Umayyad dynasty established its court at Córdoba, this area became the peninsula's intellectual and political centre. It returned to Spanish Christian rule in 1492 and remained a province until divided in 1833 into the eight modern provinces. A mining and agricultural region, Andalusia also features beaches along the Costa del Sol that attract the tourist trade.