City (pop., 2006 est.: 504,949), New Mexico, U.S. The state's largest city, it lies on the Rio Grande southwest of Santa Fe. Founded in 1706 by the governor of New Mexico, it was named for the duke of Alburquerque (the first r was later dropped), the viceroy of New Spain. After 1800 growing commerce on the Santa Fe Trail brought an influx of settlers; an army post was established following U.S. occupation in 1846. With the coming of the railroad in 1880, the population expanded. The characteristically Spanish Old Town and its mission church (1706) have survived. Since the 1930s many defense-related federal agencies have been established there (most notably the Sandia National Laboratories), along with a variety of manufacturing facilities, military bases, laboratories, and offices. The population continued to grow into the 21st century.