City (pop., 2001: metro. area, 4,525,013), Gujarat state, west-central India. It is located on the Sabarmati River 275 mi (440 km) north of Mumbai (Bombay). Founded in 1411 by Sultan Ahmad Shah, Ahmadabad reached its height later that century but subsequently declined. It was revived under Mughal emperors in the 17th century and came under British rule in 1818. With the opening of cotton mills in the mid-19th century, it became India's largest inland industrial centre. The city is associated with Indian nationalism; Mohandas K. Gandhi's political agitation began there in 1930. In 2001 the city was struck by a violent earthquake that took many lives.