City (pop., 2007 est.: 258,770), western Germany, southwest of Cologne. It was inhabited by Romans in the 1st century AD. A center of Carolingian culture, and the second city of Charlemagne's empire, it was the site of his great palace. The cathedral built by Charlemagne c. 800 saw the coronation of most German kings of the 10th–16th century; his chapel, with his tomb, remains as part of the larger Gothic cathedral today. Aachen was part of France 1801–15. It is famous for its many spas.