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City (pop., 2003 est.: 2,657,900), capital of Shaanxi province, central China. Located on the Wei River, the site served as the capital of several dynasties beginning in the 11th century BC. It became one of the most splendid cities of the ancient world during the Tang dynasty (AD 618–907) and was a thriving commercial centre. Marco Polo visited in the 13th century. It was an entry point in the 1920s for communist ideology from the Soviet Union. In 1936, after Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek had been kidnapped there (seeXi'an Incident), the communists and Nationalists formed a united front against Japanese invaders. It is the site of several educational institutions and numerous temples and pagodas. It became an important tourist destination after the discovery of the nearby tomb of Emperor Shihuangdi, with its army of 6,000 life-size terra-cotta warriors (designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987).
Variants of XI'AN
Xi'an or Hsi-an conventional Sian
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on Xi'an, visit Britannica.com.