Technique for joining metallic parts, usually through the application of heat. Discovered in the 1st millennium AD during attempts to manipulate iron into useful shapes, the technique produced a strong, tough blade. Welding traditionally involved interlayering relatively soft and tough iron with high-carbon material, followed by hammer forging. Modern welding processes include gas welding, arc welding, and resistance welding. More recently, electron-beam welding, laser welding, and several solid-phase processes such as diffusion bonding, friction welding, and ultrasonic joining have been developed. See also brazing, soldering.

This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise.
For the full entry on welding, visit Britannica.com.

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