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(1862–63) Engagements fought at Vicksburg, Miss., in the American Civil War. Confederate forces held the fortified city against Union naval bombardment from the Mississippi River (1862) and attempts to attack by land. In April 1863 Ulysses S. Grant used the Union ships to ferry troops across the river at night. He quickly took nearby Port Gibson and Grand Gulf to prevent Confederate forces under Joseph Johnston from aiding those in the city. Unable to take Vicksburg directly, Grant besieged the city for six weeks. On July 4 Gen. John Pemberton (1814–1881) surrendered his force of 30,000, leaving the Mississippi River completely under Union control and splitting the Confederacy in half.
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