Verdun, Treaty of
(843) Treaty partitioning the Carolingian empire among the three surviving sons of Louis I (the Pious). It marked a first stage in the dissolution of Charlemagne's empire and a step toward the formation of the modern countries of western Europe. The treaty was signed following three years of civil war between the three brothers. Lothar I received the imperial title and Francia Media, which included much of Italy as well as parts of several other present-day European countries. Louis the German received Francia Orientalis, the land east of the Rhine River, and Charles II (the Bald) received Francia Occidentalis, the remainder of modern France.
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